Despite winning two of their last three games, they will resume the Premier League campaign after the worldwide break sitting just seventh in the table, nine points adrift of the top four.
Tottenham chairman Daniel Levy says the board was "extremely reluctant to make this change" but that "regrettably domestic results at the end of last season and the beginning of this season have been extremely disappointing".
Haaland has been in good form for Salzburg so far this season, scoring 26 goals for the Austrian side including 15 in 12 league games.
Mauricio Pochettino has been sacked by Tottenham. The only time Pochettino missed the top four was in his first season, when the club finished fifth and also made the League Cup final.
Since his arrival from Southampton in 2014 Pochettino has been a hugely popular figure with Spurs fans, and he led the team to a top four finish four times in a row.
Haaland is said to be keen on a switch to the Premier League over anywhere else, but there is also interest from Liverpool and possibly Arsenal.
Pochettino's successor will have a tough act to follow, inheriting a squad potentially requiring a revamp and lacking in areas like full back and central midfield.
Speculation will now run rife on who could take over at Spurs, with managers such as Jose Mourinho and Massimiliano Allegri being available.